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shear zone in metal cutting

[GATE 2012] ISE 316-Manufacturing Processes Engineering Higher shear plane angle means smaller shear plane which means lower shear force Result: lower cutting forces, power, temperature, all of which mean easier machining Figure 21.12 ‑ Effect of shear plane angle : (a) higher with a resulting lower shear plane area; (b) smaller with a corresponding larger shear plane area. The direction of chip flow is perpendicular to the cutting edge. The bluntness can often be approximated as a circular radius between the flank and the rake faces of the tool. Chip thickness ratio = 0.4; Undeformed thickness = 0.6 mm; Rake angle = +10° Cutting speed = 2.5 m/s; Mean thickness of primary shear zone 25 microns. Determine shear strain rate in s –1 during the process. • Neglect energy of chip separation. Shear zone models, a) single-shear plane model, b) parallel-sided shear plain model, c) pie-shaped shear plain model [14] In this paper, the aim is to concentrate the initial steps of cutting. AU - Jaspers, S.P.F.C. Y1 - 2002. Sources and Causes of heat generation in Machining During machining, heat is generated at the cutting point from three sources, Primary shear zone (1) where the major part of the energy is converted into heat. Forces in Metal Cutting •Equations can be derived to relate the forces that The shear zone: About 80-85% heat is generated in this region. The shear zone can be simplified to a shear plane (the Shear Plane theory). From measurements with this SHPB facility, it appeared that both strain rate and temperature have a considerable influence on the flow stress of metals. zone rather than shear plane. - The heat generated in metal cutting operation is generated in three individual regions. This paper presents an analytical method based on the unequal division shear-zone model to study the machining predictive theory. The model included heat generation and temperature induced workpiece material property changes. They are as follows. AU - Dautzenberg, J.H. The compressive force exerted by the cutting tool on a thin layer of work material causes development of shear strain. the deformation zone in macro-cutting such as shear plane [1], parallel-sided shear zone [12], or curved shear zone [13]. The primary result is that the unique high strain, high strain rate, large free surface characteristics of the metal cutting process can result in qualitatively different deformation behavior across the shear zone. Cutting tools commonly used in machining operations are never ideally sharp but always have some bluntness. As the name suggests, Primary Shear Zone occurs surrounding the shear plane where the uncut chip (which is actually a part of work material) is converted into chip. PY - 2002. The fraction of heat generated in the primary shear zone that is conducted into the workpiece is a key factor in the calculation of the shear plane temperature and in calculating the cutting forces based on material flow stress. Orthogonal metal cutting. temperature in the cutting zone • in the shear zone • strain rates in machining operations are very high • along the tool-chip interface • Possibly where a dull tool rubs against the machined surface • Increased temperatures: • Adversely affects strength, hardness, and wear resistance of cutting tool Study of Damage distribution over the Primary Shear Zone in the Metal Cutting using Nanoindentation M. Saket Kashani*, V. Madhavan Department of Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering,,College of Engineering. Cite . Dr. V.K.jain, IIT Kanpur. It brings convenience to the baling, storage and transportation of scrap metal materials, also offers qualified furnace charge for smelting plant. Temperature on metal cutting and cutting fluids 1/4/2013 Caused dimensional change in work piece , making of control dimensional accuracy difficult Heat generation in metal cutting 3 a) Region AB is Primary shear zone-plastic deformation ( ) b) Region BC is Secondary shear zone friction ( … 4 . In fact, there are small inclined angles in the primary shear zone. The region between the lines AB and CD is called shear-zone. The chip coils in a tight flat spiral . Note that the resultant forces, R, must be collinear to balance the forces. HEAT GENERATION IN CUTTING TOOLS . Assumptions:-• Orthogonal Cutting. Jaspers and J.H. In our effort to develop metal cutting as a high strain rate test, we are interested in mapping the damage distribution over the primary shear zone (PSZ). A new modified model based on the non-parallel primary shear zone is presented in this paper. Strategies to investigate the primary shear zone in metal cutting are largely based on chip root examinations. N2 - This paper is aimed at determining the flow stress in metal cutting. Mechanics of Metal Cutting : Merchant's Circle Diagram; Co-efficient of Friction: Determination of stress, strain and strain rate; Measurement of shear angle; Thin Zone model: Lee and Shaffer's Relationship; Thick Zone model: Okushima and Hitomi Analysis Secondary deformation zone (2) at the chip – tool interface where further heat is generated due to rubbing and / or shear. When the cutting tool is forced against the work, the metal layer which is just ahead of tool is compressed. Fig.1: Sources of heat in metal cutting For example, in a typical study of machining mild steel at 30 m/min at about 750 deg of cutting temperature at tool-chip interface, the distribution of total energy developed at the shear zone is as follows Energy at chip – 60 percent Energy to … b-) Force is circle to determine various forces acting in the cutting zone. During shearing, material initially deforms plastically in a very small region (H), causing a residual deformation.Afterwards, the upper blade penetrates the material forming a clean zone (I) where cutting is neat and regular. This paper is aimed at determining the flow stress in metal cutting. Dautzenberg. • Shear strength of Metal along shear plane is not affected by Normal stress. • Continuous chip without BUE. The pros and cons of Trend model, Oxley model, and other models on mechanical behaviors of the second shear zone (SSZ) were reviewed. After passing out the shear-zone, the deformed metal slides along the tool face due to the velocity of the cutting tool. This leads shear along the shear plane and cutting off the chip from the workpiece. A large variety of deburring, chamfering, bending and other secondary processing operations may be employed to produce sheet metal product with edges of the desired geometry and quality. Orthogonal metal cutting . Material behaviour in conditions similar to metal cutting : flow stress in the primary shear zone . The deformation zone which produces the chip and finished surface in metal cutting extends away from the cutting tool into the workpiece. BALERMANN metal container shear is applicable for cutting the metal shaped in different cross section like round, square, channel, angle, I shape, plate and various waste structural metal at cold state. Heat is produced due to the requirement of energy to shear the metal. By S.P.F.C. Abstract In our effort to develop metal cutting as a high strain rate test, we are interested in mapping the damage distribution over the Fc = cutting measured by dynamometer Ft = thrust force measured by a dynamometer Fs = Shear force. For same feed and depth of cut the force which shears the metal acts on smaller areas. 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